بررسی ارتباط بین ویژگی‌های هیدروژئومورفیک و میزان تولید رسوب (مطالعه موردی: حوضه قرنقو در استان آذربایجان شرقی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

تجزیه و تحلیل منطقه‌ای بار رسوب رودخانه‌ها بخصوص در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک و ارتباط آن به خصوصیات حوضه‌های آبخیز در برآورد میزان فرسایش و رسوب از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است. لذا هدف از مطالعه حاضر مدل‏سازی رابطه‌ی بین میزان بار رسوب معلق با ویژگی‌های ژئومورفیکی حوضه رودخانه قرنقو است. این تحقیق با هدف استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی برای استخراج خصوصیات ژئومورفیک حوضه و ارتباط آن با رسوبدهی در 19 زیرحوضه رودخانه قرنقو انجام گرفت. به منظور تعیین ارتباط بین خصوصیات ژئومورفیک با رسوب هر زیرحوضه از تحلیل رگرسیون چند متغیره گام به گام استفاده شد. نتیجه بررسی ارتباط بین خصوصیات ژئومورفیک با رسوب زیرحوضه‌ها نشان داد که مقدار رسوب تولیدی با حجم جریان و ضریب فرم حوضه، همبستگی مثبت داشته و در سطح 5 درصد معنی‌دار بوده است. همچنین جهت شناسایی عوامل تاثیرگذار بر میزان رسوب حوضه از بین متغیرهای موجود از روش تحلیل مولفه‌های اصلی(PCA) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که چهار عامل مساحت، محیط، طول و ضریب فرم حوضه به ترتیب 50، 9/20، 6/13 و 5/7 درصد از واریانس تمامی متغیرهای پزوهش را تبیین کند. در مجموع چهار عامل استخراج شده نهایی توانسته‌اند 2/92 درصد از واریانس تمامی متغیرهای پژوهش را تبیین کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the relationship between geomorphic characteristics and sediment yield (Case Study: Gharanghoo Basin in East Azarbaijan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayyad Asghari 1
  • ehsan ghaleh 2
1 m
2 . PhD Student of Geomorghology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University
چکیده [English]

1. Introduction
Soil degradation by water is the most serious form of land degradation in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, where soil formation rates are usually less than soil degradation due to rapid soil erosion, the impact of human abuses And incorrect use of soils. For this reason, crushing land control strategies such as agricultural agriculture, mulch, environmental improvement or land expansion are necessary to avoid drought in agricultural land. Awareness of the process of soil erosion and sediment transport as an effective factor in reducing soil fertility and soil loss, filling dams, catching and blocking irrigation channels, polluting water from rivers, and reducing water quality have long been considered by geoscience experts. Understanding the factors affecting sediment production plays an important role in determining the amount of sediment yield of a basin and understanding the phenomenon of erosion and its consequences and can be used to prioritize sub basins in a watershed. Areal characteristics encompass morphological characteristics such as drainage density, stream frequency and watershed shape parameters. Ease access to Digital Elevation Models, remote sensing data as sediment yield predictors, simplify the calculation of the watershed geomorphic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to use the geographic information system to extract the watershed geomorphic characteristics and determine their relationship with sedimentation in the Gharanghoo basin.
2. Methodology
This study was conducted in 19 subwatersheds in Gharanghoo basin. In order to select appropriate subwatersheds, the hydrometric and rainfall data for hydrometric and meteorological stations were obtained from East Azarbaijan Regional Water authority for the selected watersheds. Annual sediment load was calculated using sediment rating curve method. Physiographic and geomorphic characteristics including 25 geomorphic parameters were calculated for each sub watershed using digital elevation model with spatial resolution of 30 m. In order to determine the relationship between geomorphic characteristics and sediment yield of the subwatersheds, a multivariate regression stepwise analysis was used. In the multivariate regression, the important geomorphic characteristics which affect watershed sedimentation are identified and based on those parameters, the best annual sediment yield and geomorphic characteristics equation were presented.
3. Results
The annual amount of sediment varies from 63500 tons per year in the Kalghan sub basin (Kalghan dam) to 4636762.6 tons per year in the gharanghoo area at the intersection with Ghezel Ozan. Basin sedimentation weight as dependent variable and other parameters were considered as independent variables. The variables of flow volume, area, environment, equivalent rectangular length, equivalent rectangular width, drainage density, branching index, minimum height, coefficient of elongation and roughness of the basin were compared. Other variables have higher correlation with sediment yield. The result of the study of the relationship between geomorphic characteristics and sediment of sub-basins showed that the amount of sediment produced with flow volume and basin coefficient was positively correlated and was significant at 5% level. The principal components analysis (PCA) method was used to identify the factors affecting sediment yield of the existing variables. The results show that the four factors of area, area, length and coefficient of form of basin are 50, 20.9, 13.6 and 7.7 percent of the variance of all variables, respectively. In total, the four finalized factors have been able to explain 92.2% of the variance of all research variables.The results show that the four factors of area, area, length and coefficient of form of basin are 50, 20.9, 13.6 and 7.7 percent of the variance of all variables, respectively. In total, the four finalized factors have been able to explain 92.2% of the variance of all research variables.

4. Discussion & Conclusions
The results of this study indicate that there is a significant relationship between the geomorphic characteristics of the studied watersheds and annual sediment yield. Watershed Form factor is a dimensionless index for flood flow and movement, erosion severity and sediment transport capacity of watersheds. This factor is a function of watershed area and length. Run off and amount of flood peak in bigger watersheds will increase sediment yield. Many researches have reported high correlation between rainfall and sediment yield. Arid climate and poor vegetation cover in selected watersheds is the main reason for high correlation of rainfall and sediment yield. Soil erosion and sediment yield will increase due to high intensity and low duration of rainfall along with scarcity of vegetation cover and erodible soils in this region. Overall, study results indicated that with the development of new technologies and the possibility of extracting different physiographic and geomorphic parameters of watersheds from a digital elevation model, it is possible to present regional equations for prediction of sediment yield using geomorphic characteristics that can be used in sediment control and Watershed Management Programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Stepwise regression
  • Principal component analysis
  • Geomorphic features
  • Gharanghoo basin
  • شویک­لو , امیررضا، 1396، آنالیز و تفسیر داده­های حسی با استفاده از تحلیل مولفه­های اصلی، مجله علوم و صنایع غذایی، شماره 80، دوره 15، صص 377-361.
  • فغفوری، زهرا؛ آرمان، نسیم؛ فرجی، محمد؛ خورسندی، زهره، 1396، تعیین عوامل موثر بر رسوب­دهی با استفاده از روش­های آماری مطالعه موردی: حوضه سیدآباد، نشریه مهندسی و مدیریت آبخیز، شماره 2، صص 204-190.
  • معتمدی، راضیه؛ آذری، محمود، 1396، ارتباط بین ویژگیهای ژئومورفیک با رسوب آبخیز(مطالعه موردی: زیرحوضه­های منتخب خراسان رضوی)، مجله پژوهش­های فرسایش محیطی، 4(28)، صص 101-82.
  • معظمی، محمد؛ فیض­نیا، سادات، 1386، آنالیز ناحیه­ای رسوب معلق (مطالعه موردی رودخانه جراحی)، چهارمین همایش ملی علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری ایران، مدیریت حوضه­های آبخیز، ص 13.
  •  غلامی، لیلا؛ صادقی، حکیدرضا؛ خالدی درویشان، عبدالولحد؛ تلوری، عبدالرسول، 1387، مدلسازی رسوب ناشی از رگبارها با استفاده از متغیّرهای باران و رواناب، مجله علوم و صنایع کشاورزی، 22(2)، صص 263-271.
  • Ares M.G., Varni  M., Chagas C., 2016: Suspended sediment concentration controlling factors: an analysis for the Argentine Pampas region. Hydrological Science Journal 61 (12): 2237-2248.
  • Chorley, R.J., Malm, D.E. and Pogorzelski, H.A., 1957. A new standard for estimating drainage basin shape. American Journal of Science, 255(2), pp.138-141.
  • Fryirs, K., 2013. (Dis) Connectivity in catchment sediment cascades: a fresh look at the sediment delivery problem. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 38(1), pp.30-46.
  • Heng S, Suetsugi T. 2014.Comparison of regionalization approaches in parameterizing sediment rating curve in ungauged catchments for subsequent instantaneous sediment yield prediction. Journal of Hydrology 512: 240-253.
  • Heshmati M. 2010. Assessment of land degradation in relation to human-induced causes in ago-ecological zones in the Merekctchment, Iran. Ph.D. thesis in University Putra Malaysia.
  •  Lamb E., Toniolo H., 2016: Initial Quantification of Suspended Sediment Loads for Three Alaska North Slope Rivers. Water 419 (8): 2-11. 
  • Lieskovský J, Kenderessy P. 2014. Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: A case study in vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM. Land Degradation & Development 25(3): 288-296.
  •  Mahdavi, M. 2011. Applied Hydrology. 9th edition.Tehran University press. 342 p.
  •  Novara A, Keesstra S, Cerdà A, Pereira P, GristinaL. 2016. Understanding the role of soil erosion on CO2-c loss using 13c isotopic signatures in a bandoned Mediterranean agricultural land. Science of The Total Environment 550: 330-336.
  •  Pal, B., Samanta, S. and Pal, D.K., 2012. Morphometric and hydrological analysis and mapping for Watut watershed using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, 2(1), p.357.
  • Ries JB, Hirt U. 2008. Permanence of soil surface crusts on abandoned farmland in the central Ebro Basin/Spain. Catena 72: 282-296.
  • Shayan, S., Zare, GH.R., Yamani, M., Sharifi Kia, M., Sultanpour, M. 2013, Analysis of the trend of statistics changes in the discharge and sediment of the Mend watershed and its application in environmental planning, Journal of Applied Geomorphology. 1(2): 50-37.
  • Singh, S., 1992. Quantitative geomorphology of the drainage basin (pp. 81-7233). Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India.
  • Soni, S., 2017. Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique. Applied Water Science, 7(5), pp.2089-2102.
  • Strahler, A.N., 1964. Quantitative Geomorphology of Basin and Channel Networks: Handbook of Applied Hydrology.
  •  Zare Chahuki, M.A. 2010. Data analysis in natural resources research using SPSS software. first edition. Jahad University press. 309 P.
  • Zhang, H.Y., Shi, Z.H., Fang, N.F. and Guo, M.H., 2015. Linking watershed geomorphic characteristics to sediment yield: Evidence from the Loess Plateau of China. Geomorphology, 234, pp.19-27.
  • Ziegler AD., Benner G., Tantasirin C., 2014: Turbidity-based sediment monitoring in northern Thailand: hysteresis, variability, and uncertainty. Journal of Hydrology 519: 2020–2039.