شناسایی و بررسی خصوصیات مورفومتریک و خاک دولین‌ها در شمال ایران (مطالعه موردی: منطقه گرازبن از جنگل آزمایشی خیرود کنار، نوشهر مازندران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 جغرافیایی طبیعی، گروه جغرافیا،دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

2 گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، ازدبیل، ایران

3 ریس دفتر بهره برداری سازمان منابع طبیعی کل کشور، نوشهر، مازندران، ایران

10.22034/gmpj.2021.134548

چکیده

چکیده
دولین‌‌ها فرورفتگی‌های شاخص مناطق کارستی شناخته می‌شوند و آب جاری در سطح زمین را از طریق این فرورفتگی‌ها به سیستم زهکشی زیرزمینی انتقال می‌دهند. پژوهش حاضر مطالعه‌ای میدانی مبتنی بر تکنیک مورفومتری است که هدف آن، شناسایی دولین‌ها، اندازه‌گیری‌ ابعاد و تحلیل و توصیف شکل دولین‌ها در منطقه مورد مطالعه است. ویژگی‌های مورفومتری مثل طول, عرض و عمق دولین‌ها اندازه‌گیری شد و برای تشخیص میزان تراکم و طبقه‌بندی نوع شکل دولین‌ها از شاخص‌های مورفومتریک استفاده شده است. همچنین برای بررسی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک از سه قسمت بیرونی، دیواره و کف دولین‌ها در عمق 15 سانتی‌متری نمونه خاک برداشت شد و نمونه‌ها برای اندازه‌گیری پارامتر‌های بافت خاک، میزان آهک و PH در آزمایشگاه مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند که نتایج آن نشان دهنده تفاوت معنی داری بین پارامترهای بافت و آهک خاک در سه موقعیت متفاوت دولین‌ها است. نتایج بدست آمده از شاخص‌های مورفومتریک حاکی از توزیع نامنظم دولین‌ها در منطقه مورد مطالعه است محورهای طولی و عرضی دولین‌ها عدم تقارن خاصی را نشان می‌دهد و شکل دولین‌ها بیشتر نیمه مدور و بیضوی بوده و حفره‌های کف دولین به خوبی توسعه نیافته و در منطقه شاهد دولین‌های انحلالی هستیم. ارزیابی ویژگی‌های و تراکم بالا و انحلالی بودن دولین‌های منطقه مورد مطالعه نشان‌دهنده توسعه یافته بودن ژئومورفولوژی کارست منطقه گرازبن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Doline morphometric analysis and soil characteristics in northern Iran (case study: Gorazbon district of the Kheyrud kenar experimental forest)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Shokr Behjati 1
  • fariba esfandiyari darabad 2
  • Abas Rostami 3
2 Geography Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardebili, Ardabil, Iran
3 , Range and watershed management organization Noshahr, Mazandaran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
A doline consists of a superficial enclosed depression in karst areas, similar to a crater with one or more cavities in the bottom landform, which permit underground drainage of water. We also used the morphometric parameters collected in the fieldwork to analyze and characterize the shape of dolines in the study area. Different soil samples were collected from 3 locations (out- wall - bottom of4 doline) at 15 cm depth. We conducted several chemical and physical analyses that allowed us to compare soil properties in the two different doline sections. And the samples were evaluated in the laboratory for measuring soil texture parameters, lime content and ph. Soil analysis showed the different characteristics of soil in the different place of dolines. The dolines were more sub elliptical and elliptical and may not be a well-developed swallow hole. The results show an irregular distribution in the study area. The doline density differed within the plots in our study area, as results showed. The axes of length and width show a certain asymmetry. The dolines were more sub elliptical and elliptical and may not have a well-developed swallow hole, at the bottom of the doline. Evaluation of the characteristics and high density and of solution dolines in the study area indicate the development of karst geomorphology in the Gorazbon region.
Keywords: Doline, Karst, Morphometry, Karst landscapes, Gorazbon.
Introduction
The motivation for such research comes from the strong belief that in this region the geomorphic systems were developed under the influence of various natural processes in the old-growth forest. The identification and prevent from hazards of dolines collapse and karst evolution in the region is now necessary. The major aim of this study is the identification of dolines and to describe their morphometric and soil characteristics in the different place of dolines.
Methodology
The morphometric study of these karst landforms enables quantitative analysis of karst environment (Bondesan et al,1992). In what concerns the morphometric analysis, the main problem is the lack of suitable maps with sufficient resolution. For this reason, we used morphometric parameters in fieldwork to obtain information. Data collection and field inventories took place during the summer of 2018 °..Among a great number of morphometric parameters proposed by various karst geomorphologists, only those that are possible to be measured or calculated by data from fieldwork based on the available data were included in this study. Morphometric measurements (length, width, area, perimeter, density, pitting index, circularity index, length/width ratio, diameter /depth ratio) were performed on each expression using Morphometric Index. Soil samples were collected from 3 locations (out, wall and bottom of the doline) at 15 cm depth. Our initial assumption is that the soil characteristics must be different in three different parts of the doline. In order to test this hypothesis, sixteen dolines at different plots were chosen randomly within the study area. Prior to laboratory analysis, living roots and rocks were removed, and samples were air-dried and sifted through a 2-mm-mesh steel sieve. We conducted several chemical and physical analyses that allowed us to compare soil properties in two different dolines sections. We focused on soil texture, Ph, lime.
Results and discussion
Each discussed the display of parameters with graphs and maps, basic calculation of statistical values, control of morph-tectonics doline development in determining the factors and the area studied provides important clues in explaining development. The doline characteristics differ within our plots. The soil texture is relatively heterogeneous at walls and bottoms, but the clay ratio in walls is greater than in the bottoms. Solution dolines commonly have clay-rich residual deposits on their floor (Gutiérrez, 2016), but on the opposite, in samples of the study area, there is less clay content in the bottom of the dolines, which is probably due to evident fissures, fractures and cavity that were visible there.
Conclusion
There are hundreds of dolines in the Gorazbon and in some cases, the dolines are design valleys, and they are located in an along directed line position. The application of GIS and remote sensing technology allows the analysis, and presentation of morphometric and spatial distribution parameters of the dolines. Despite the accurate, rapid, and objective data processing of GIS, it should be kept in mind that dolines may have been underrepresented because of the constraints of map resolution, the small dimension of dolines, as well as the thick vegetation and sediment cover. Comparing the results obtained from the fieldwork method with remote sensing methods and using the GIS method, it was found that the results of fieldwork are more reliable. Some of the dolines were small and close to each other and were not detected in topographic map 1:25000 Kheyrud kenar and DEM with resolution 10 M. for the spatial distribution of the doline, a regular grid of sampling points was randomly selected using a systematic random sampling technique. The dolines density differed within the plots in our study area. In this study, a set of shape parameters is specified, different methods (length-width ratio, length-depth ratio) have been examined and applied to determine the doline shape which showed as results that axes of length and width show a certain asymmetry. The dolines were more sub elliptical and elliptical and may not be a well-developed swallow hole, in the bottom of the doline. Some dolines are shallow, a few little Doline funnel-shaped with very steep sides. Also, soil analysis showed the different characteristic of soil on the out, bottom and wall dolines.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Doline
  • karst
  • morphometry
  • Karst landscapes
  • Gorazbon
  • بی نام، م.، طرح جنگلداری بخش گرازبن جنگل خیرود مازندران، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، صص 357.
  • Abrahams, A.D., Parsons, A.J., Relation between infiltration and stone cover on a semiarid hillslope, southern Arizona: Journal of Hydrology,122, pp.49–59.
  • Bátori, Z., Csiky, J., Farkas, T., Vojtkó, A. E., Erdős, L. Kovács D. Vojtkó A. The conservation value of karst dolines for vascular plants in woodland habitats of Hungary: Refugia and climate change, International Journal of Speleology. 43, pp.15–26.
  • Bahtijarevic, A., Morphometric analysis of the Northern Floridan karst: University of South Florida.
  • Bondesan, A., MENEGHEL, M., SAURO, U., Morphometric Analysis of Dolines: International Journal of Speleology, 21, pp.1-55.
  • Basso, A., Bruno, E., Parise, M., Pepe, M., Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area of southern Apulia: Environ Earth Sci Italy. 70 pp. 2545–2559.
  • Can Denizman., Morphometric and spatial distribution parameters of karstic depressions, Lower Suwannee River Basin, Florida: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 65,pp. 29-35.
  • Calvo-Cases, A., Boix-Fayos, C., Imeson, A.C., Runoff generation, sediment movement and soil water behaviour on calcareous slopes of some Mediterranean environments in southeast Spain: Geomorphology,50, pp. 269-291.
  • Cantón, Y., Domingo, F., Solé-Benet, A., Puigdefábregas, J., Influence of soil surface types on the overall runoff of the Tabernas badlands (SE Spain): Field data and model approaches. Hydrol. Process,16, pp. 2621–2643.
  • De Carvalho, O., Guimarães, R., Montgomery, D., Gillespie, A., Trancoso Gomes, R., Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambuí Group, Brazil:Remote Sens.6 pp. 330–351.
  • DAY M.J. The morphology and hydrology of some Jamaican karst depressions:Earth Surface Process.1,pp. 11-129.
  • Dakskobler, I., Pregled bukovih rastišč v Sloveniji A review of beech sites in Slovenia: ZBGL. 87, pp.3–14.
  • Folk, Robert. 1974. petrology of sedimentary rocks. Austin, Texas: Hemphill publishing co.182.
  • Ford, D.C. Williams, P. Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology: Chichester. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp.1-554.
  • Gutiérrez, F., Parise, M., DeWaele, J., Jourde, H., 2014. A reviewon natural and human-induced geohazards and impacts in karst: Earth-Science Reviews.138, 61–88.
  • Gutiérrez, F., Gutiérrez-Elorza, M., Marín, C., Maldonado, C., Younger, PL., Subsidence hazard avoidance based on geomorphological mapping in the Ebro River valley mantled evaporite karst terrain ,NE Spain: Environ Geol, 48, pp. 370–383.
  • Gams, I. Factors and dynamics of corrosion of the carbonatic rocks in the Dinaric and Alpine Karst of Slovenia, Yugoslavia: Geographical Bulletin, 37: 11-68.
  • Gutiérrez, F., 2016. Sinkhole Hazards: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science.
  • Kobal, M., Bertoncelj, I., Pirotti, F., Dakskobler, I., Kutnar, L., 2015. Using Lidar Data to Analyse Sinkhole Characteristics Relevant for Understory Vegetation under Forest Cover-Case Study of a High Karst Area in the Dinaric Mountains: PLoS ONE. 10.
  • Lipar, M., Stepisnik, U., Ferk, M., Multiphase breakdown sequence of collapse doline morphogenesis: An example from Quaternary aeolianites in Western Australia. Geomorphology, 327, pp. 572-584.
  • SAUROU., 1982. Landforms and soil evolution in some karstic areas of the Lessini Mountains and Monte Baldo ,Verona, Northern Italy : Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 5,pp. 82-10.
  • Newby, PRT. Photogrammetric Terminology: Second Edition. Photogramm Rec, 27, pp. 360–386.
  • Öztürk, MZ., Şener, MF. Şener, M. Şimşek M., Structural controls on distribution of dolines on Mount Anamas ,Taurus Mountains, Turkey :Geomorphology, 317, pp. 107–116.
  • Ogden, AE., 1988. A Morphometric Analysis of the Sinkholes in the Greenbrier Limestone of West Virginia. 2nd, Environmental problems in Karst terrines and their solutions: Proceedings of the conference.
  • Podobnikar, T., Schöner, M., Jansa, J., Pfeifer, N., Spatial analysis of anthropogenic impact on karst geomorphology (Slovenia): Environ Geol, 58, pp. 257–268.
  • Palmer, A. N. 1990. Groundwater r processes in karst terrains. New York: Geological Society of American, pp. 177-209.
  • Recep, Efe., 2013. Ecological properties of vegetation formations on karst terrains in the central Taurus Mountains, Southern Turkey, International Geography Symposium: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 120, pp.673-679.
  • Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. GPO, Washington, DC.2nd ed. USDA Handb. 436. USDA-NRCS, pp.7-863.
  • Solé Benet, A., Calvo, A., Cerdà, A., Lázaro, R., Pini, R., Barbero, J., Influences of micro-relief patterns and plant cover on runoff related processes in badlands from Tabernas ,SE Spain: Catena,31,pp. 23–38.
  • Telbisz, T. Dragušica, H. Nagy B. 2009. Doline Morphometric Analysis and Karst Morphology of Biokovo Mt (Croatia) Based on Field Observations and Digital Terrain Analysis: Croatian Geographical Bulletin, 71, pp. 2.
  • Williams, PW. Morphometric Analysis of Polygonal Karst in New Guinea: Geol Soc Am Bull, 83,pp. 761-796.
  • Yair, A., Lavee, H., Runoff Generation in Arid and Semi-Arid Zones. In: Anderson, M.G., Burt, T.P. (Eds.), Hydrological Forecasting. New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 183-220.