عنوان مقاله [English]
Geomorphic and topographic landscapes are not only effective in dispersion or selection of human activities, but also one of the effective factors in the formation of physical structures of space structures. Analysis of urbanization can be influenced by the conceptualization of phenomenology, because in this view, the basis for the development of a human settlement is first of space identity. According to the theory of "4th-era lakes, the crystallization and expansion of civilization in Iran", lakes have been considered as identity-making components of urbanism in Iran. Therefore, the present study seeks to supplement other geomorphologic studies in this field by focusing on Yazd basin, located in the great catchment area of Yazd-Meybod-Siahkooh. This research has been carried out with a phenomenological view based on a set of archaeological, geomorphologic, sedimentological, Space syntax analysis and field visits. The findings indicate that: 1-There are separate lakes in Yazd-Meybod-Siahkooh catchment area, of which Yazd Lake is one. During the glacial periods, the lakes were connected and ended up in the Siahkooh desert. 2- Yazd, (Meybod and Ardakan) owes its urbanism to its space identity, namely the existence of these lakes. 3- Small cities such as Islamabad (Farasha), Taft, Khezrabad and Mehriz take their space identity from the Water-Ice equilibrium line.
Keywords: Geomorphic landscapes, Phenomenology, Yazd basin, Space identity
Iran is a rainbow of different climates that has different ranges of climate, humidity, light and different textures of the earth. In this passage, the social configurations and the way they are arranged in space follow the general rules that can be rooted in the mirror identity of this area and have ensured the cultural sustainability of this land throughout history.
For many researchers, the subject of "environmental perception" and "landscape perception" are considered as natural and human concepts. But the concept of environment is more universal. While the perception of the landscape is focused on the emotional wisdom of its inhabitants, this is a cognitive issue. It is not possible to live anywhere, the place means the space and it differs from the concept of "safe place". Every place can have a rank in space. The location of this order is sometimes taken from “natural contex” and sometimes “social contex”. Understanding how to build human settlements, layout of landscapes and civility has occupied the minds of many scholars in different disciplines. Researchers from the fields of archaeology, architecture, urban planning, sociology and even history and geology have expressed theories from their perspective. This issue has also been studied from a geomorphological point of view, leading to the creation of the word "space identity". Geomorphologists consider human settlements and landscape layouts to be born of the thoughts and minds of people who have understood the space identity of their land and have built them according to this understanding. In fact, from their point of view, cities are not created from mere natural forms and processes, but they are rather organized in human cognitive procedures. Thus, the objective understanding of the place replaces it’s mental understanding. In order to understand why settlements are established, geomorphologists believe that not only should we be aware of the characteristics of the land's space identity, but it is also necessary to understand the attitude and perception of people about the identity of their land. Comparison of social configurations in land contex shows that their space syntax is related to understanding their identity meaning.John Rawls (2014) uses the concept of the “Original position” and believes that when people can reach an unwritten agreement on principles, a social institution will be formed. Urban society, rural society or a tribe are among the fundamental social institutions that have reached an implicit agreement on how to live together in a place or land zone. What is defined in geomorphology based on this proposition is “space identity”. This stimulates as question as to whether space identity can be constructive of fundamental social institutions? Do the structure and model of geographical-social institutions such as the city, village, tribe and other institutions follow this concept? In other words, do living patterns in human settlements are organized by space identity? And, diversity of space identity has led to the formation of diverse social patterns and mechanisms? Understanding the formation mechanisms of human settlements has occupied the minds of many thinkers of different disciplines. Researchers from the fields of archaeology, architecture, urban planning, sociology and even history have expressed theories from their perspective. This issue has also been considered from a geomorphological point of view and therefore has led to the definition of the concept of "space identity".
The issue of space identity is tied to the issue of space and planning according to the requirements. Therefore, researches in this field, as the history of this research that can be mentioned are somehow involved with spatial planning. Including the people who are known in this field as follows: Misra (1987) believes that a set of concepts, approaches, methods and tools needed to achieve the desired organization and spatial structure can be pursued in the form of planning. Hillier (2007) by providing space configuration measuring tool and the concept tries to discover the social legitimacies in the environment and achieves the spatial configuration pattern. Vasilovaska and Melynka (2009) introduce planning as a way to intervention in spatial development processes in order to create a different and more sustainable structure. Azizi and Arbab (2008) have dealt with these issues in an article titled Identity Challenge in New Cities: New cities are currently facing challenges, are genesis and are looking for land view, identity and purpose. They are ahead of the future and everything is possible for them. What kind of population should be absorbed and what social space is being founded?