عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the areas that has high potential in the development of geotourism and tourism industry is the karst areas. Iran covers about 11% of the country's karst areas, most of which are located in the Zagros belt.. Kamyaran city in Kurdistan province is one of the areas located in karst formations and due to the geographical location and the existence of appropriate parameters such as rainfall, lime purity, the presence of seams and cracks, etc., has caused most of the karst areas of this area to be developed and this factor has caused in this city We see a variety of karst landscapes such as caves, valleys, rivers and abundant springs and waterfalls, and also on a smaller scale types of lapis that play a role in the diversity of landscapes in the region. The diversity of karst landscapes in the region has caused this city to be very popular with tourists in recent years, so the karstic nature of the region has been the main factor in attracting tourists in recent years, but despite the karst factors as Has been the main factor in the development of tourism in the region, However, no comprehensive research has been done on the geomorphological resources of tourism and their vulnerability, so in this study, the effective factors in the development of karst landforms and also the impact of the role of karst landforms in the development of geotourism in Kamyaran city have been studied.
Materials and methods
This research is based on descriptive and analytical methods. Research data include geological maps 1: 100000, topographic maps 1: 250,000, digital model of 30 m height, as well as library information and information from field visits. In this research, ArcGIS and SPSS have also been used as research tools. This research has been done in two stages. In the first stage, potential library geosites have been identified using library studies and field visits. After identifying the geosites, they were evaluated using the Kubalikova method and the local method, which was prepared based on different methods. In the second stage, in order to identify the karst areas developed, 9 parameters including slope, slope direction, altitude, distance from the river, precipitation, temperature, distance from the river, distance from the fault, lithology and land use have been used. After preparing the information layers, in order to do the final zoning, the prepared layers are fuzzy. After preparing the information layers and fuzzy them, the information layers have been weighed using the opinions of relevant experts and the network analysis model (ANP). After weighting the information layers, the obtained weight is applied on the layers and finally the information layers are combined using a fuzzy gamma operator, thus preparing the final map of the developed karst areas.
Discussion and results
The results of the evaluation of geosites indicate that according to the Kubalikova method, among the geosites of the region, Palangan valley has the highest score with a total of 10.25 points, followed by the geosites of Gavoshan dam and Tangivar river. With 10 and 8.75 points, respectively, have the highest score. According to the local method, Palangan Valley geosite has the highest score with a total of 28 points, followed by Tangivar River and Amirabad Plain with 26 and 25 points, respectively. Also, based on the results of combining the two methods of Kubalikova and native, the Palangan valley geosite with an average of 74.4%, has the highest score, so it is the most valuable geosite in Kamyaran. After this geosite, the geosites of Tangivar River, Gavoshan dam, Morvarid neck and Vian valley have the highest score with an average of 66.2, 66, 62.7 and 61.4 points, respectively. The results of identifying areas prone to karst development also indicate that the western parts of Kamyaran city, corresponding to the Shaho slopes, have a high potential for the development of karst processes.
The results of the research indicate that a large part of Kamyaran city is covered by developed karst areas, which has caused this city to have a high geotourism potential. In fact, under the influence of hydro-climatic conditions, geology and geomorphology, many parts of the city, including its western and southwestern regions, are prone to the development of karstic processes. Influenced by karstic processes, Kamyaran city has various forms of geotourism including springs, karstic valleys, rivers and also various landscapes resulting from dissolution that the distribution of these geosites is directly related to the development of karstic areas. In fact, a large part of the geosites of Kamyaran city are located in developed karst areas. Developed karst areas, along with their high geotourism potential, are exposed to vulnerabilities due to pollution and degradation, which should be considered in the geotourism development goals of the region.