عنوان مقاله [English]
Khanmirza plain is one of the plains of cold and temperate regions of Iran, with an average rainfall of 500 mm per year and sufficient nutrition in terms of surface resources, the subsidence event is currently happening in it with a rapid trend. In terms of geostructure, Khanmirza plain is located in the folded Zagros zone in the south of the Dana fault, and the presence of piezometers protruding from the soil, as well as the presence of springs, etc., are signs of crustal movement on the surface of this plain. For this purpose, with the aim of evaluating the tectonic activity of the region in creating the phenomenon of subsidence from some geomorphic indices such as basin shape index (BS), river longitudinal gradient (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (AF), reverse topography symmetry index (T), integral index Hypsometry (H) of the region's subsidence was studied tectonically. Likewise, the subsidence rate was determined using radar interferometry. Examining these indicators showed that the indicators of basin shape (BS), river longitudinal gradient (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (AF), reverse topography symmetry index (T) are active tectonics in the region. Earth construction activities have caused the plain to stretch and become asymmetric on both sides of the main river. Likewise, the results of radar interferometry in the two-year period indicate that parallel to subsidence (at a rate of 9 cm) in some parts of the plain, other parts are facing uplift (at a rate of 21 cm).
Collapse and subsidence can be caused by natural geological phenomena such as earthquakes, dissolution of limestone, chalk and salt rocks, melting of ice and compaction of deposits, slow movements of the crust and the release of lava from the solid crust of the earth, or activities human activities such as mining, extracting underground fluids such as underground water, oil or gas (Galloy and Barbie, 2011: 1459). Radar interferometry has been widely used by Earth researchers since the early 1990s (Shirani et al.: 2013). This technique can be used to measure displacements resulting from many phenomena such as earthquakes, landslides and subsidence. In general, there are nearly six hundred plains in Iran, and it is likely that more than half of them are subject to subsidence (Kia Sharifi, 2010: 58).
In order to evaluate the tectonic situation of the region, from topographic maps 1:50000 and geological map 1:100000 to calculate basin shape index (BS), river longitudinal gradient (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (AF), symmetry index Inverted topography (T), hypsometric integral index (H) from (DEM) 30 meters and topographic map were used, which were processed in GIS environment. D-InSAR radar images were used in the period from 2003 to 2005, which were processed in ENVI 5.3 software. Radar interferometry technique
Results and Discussion
How to calculate the SL river gradient index: The SL index is calculated for the middle point between two flow curves. Symmetry index of transverse topography (T): this index can also specify the state of symmetry and, as a result, the active or inactive state of the region. Drainage basin asymmetry index (AF): The asymmetry index is a method to evaluate the existence of tilts caused by tectonic activities at the scale of the drainage basin. Basin Shape Ratio Index (BS): Basins that have an elongated shape are tectonically active. And the shape of basins that are tectonically inactive tends to be round. Integral Hypsometric Index: Integral Hypsometric is an index that calculates the height of the entire area in relation to the area of the entire area. The values of this index show the transformation stages of the landscape in the erosion cycle. Today, radar interferometry, as a technique that estimates the displacement of the earth's surface with high accuracy and resolution, is a common tool for investigating the change of the earth's surface due to various factors, including land subsidence. In this technique, an interferogram can be prepared using two satellite images. So that by using the interferometric tool, the phases of the return signal from the ground are subtracted from each other in two time-delayed satellite images of the same region to extract changes in the ground surface. The radar interferometry technique uses Sarscape software as one of the powerful tools in the digitization of satellite images to survey the changes in the earth's surface. In this research, 12 Envisat satellite images from the European Space Agency were prepared
. The amount of subsidence calculated from 10 paired images is 9 cm drop in a two-year period, and the amount of elevation obtained from the images was calculated as 21 cm in a two-year period. By comparing these two numbers, it can be concluded that in this basin, the uplift rate is twice as high as the subsidence rate.
The obtained values show that in addition to groundwater extraction as one of the main and common causes of subsidence, considering the tectonic factor in areas such as the Khanmirza watershed with high rainfall input is one of the main reasons for its formation.