ارزیابی و تحلیل فرونشست در دشت هشتگرد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ژئومورفولوژی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه اصفهان

3 استادیار دانشگاه اصفهان

10.22034/gmpj.2023.414731.1454

چکیده

یکی از پیامدهای فاجعه‌بار افزایش کسری آبخوان‌ها، پدیده فرونشست زمین است که طی سال‌های اخیر در بسیاری از دشتهای ایران روندی افزایشی داشته اسـت و به‌طور نگران‌کننده‌ای در حال گسترش است. مشابه بسیاری از مناطق ایران، دشتهای جنوبی البرز با فرونشست سریع زمین مواجه شدهاند که میتواند ناشی با برداشت بیرویه آب‌های زیرزمینی باشد. در این پژوهش سعی شده میزان فرونشست در محدوده شهری هشتگرد ارزیابی گردد. روش اصلی تحقیق، روش تداخل‌سنجی راداری و سری زمانی SBAS است. پس از تهیه نقشه میزان افت سالانه آب زیرزمینی منطقه، میزان فرونشست در مناطق مختلف اندازهگیری و ارتباط آن با وضعیت کاربری اراضی و پیش روی نواحی سکونتگاهی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. در ادامه همبستگی بین نرخ فرونشست با میزان افت سطح آب‌های زیرزمینی منطقه موردبررسی قرار گرفته است و نهایتاً با استفاده از مدل تلفیقی منطق فازی و AHP به شناسایی مناطق مستعد وقوع فرونشست پرداخته شده است. نبود موانع ژئومورفولوژیکی در هشتگرد باعث شده است که توسعه سکونتگاهی و کشاورزی در این منطقه با محدودیت زیادی روبهرو نباشد. لذا در بازه زمانی 30 ساله تغییرات عمدهای در کاربری اراضی منطقه به وجود آمده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان میدهد که مناطق دارای افت سطح آب زیرزمینی، با فرونشست نیز مواجه شدهاند به طوری که محدوده هشتگرد در بازه زمانی پنجساله ما بین 18 تا 320 میلیمتر فرونشست را داشته است. مجموعه این شرایط به‌روشنی نشان می‌دهد که این منطقه نیاز به برنامهریزیها و رویکردهای نوین مدیریتی در ارتباط منابع آب دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment and analysis of subsidence risk in Hashtgerd Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • akbar rostami 1
  • Mojgan Entezari 2
  • reza zakerinejad 3
1 university of Isfahan
2 university of Isfahan
3 university of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Introduction

Land subsidence is a geological hazard that occurs in connection with human activities and environmental changes. This hazard has occurred in 60 countries and more than 150 cities of the world. Similar to many regions of Iran, the southern plains of the Alborz mountain range are facing rapid land subsidence in connection with excessive extraction of groundwater. Considering the average water consumption and the scattered data related to the drop in the underground water level in the country, it is not difficult to recognize that subsidence and its consequences have become a problematic phenomenon in the country. In recent years, many cracks have appeared in agricultural lands and residential buildings, streets and infrastructures of the study area; In such a way that in the agricultural sector of the region, it has caused the destruction and destruction of part of the lands, and in the residential sector, it has caused successive settlements in the buildings and caused irreparable damages.

Methodology

In this research, data analysis was done in several stages, which are described below. In the first stage, using the information related to the water level drop of the wells in the studied basin, the amount of changes in the water level of the wells was calculated and then a map of the groundwater level drop in the studied basin was prepared. In the second step, using Sentinel 1 images for a period of 5 years (January 2017 to January 2022) and using the SBAS time series method, the amount of subsidence of the studied basin has been calculated. At this stage, the desired images with 24-day intervals have been prepared. After preparing the images, Linux operating system and SNAP software have been used to process the images. In the next step, the correlation between the amount of subsidence with the state of groundwater level drop in the region and other geomorphological parameters has been evaluated, for this purpose, the interpolation map related to the drop in the groundwater level of the region was entered into SPSS software in pixel format and then the subsidence map was also created. In the same way, it was entered into the SPSS software, and in this way, the relationship between the amount of subsidence and the groundwater loss of each pixel was evaluated together. At this stage, using the integrated model of fuzzy logic and AHP, areas prone to subsidence have been identified. To do this, first, the desired parameters including lithology, height, slope, the amount of groundwater loss, proximity to the river and topographic units have been selected. After preparing the desired information layers, the layers are scaled based on the subsidence potential. After fuzzy membership of the layers, the layers are weighted based on the opinions of experts (3 Geomorphologists) and the Analytical Hierarchy Model (AHP) and finally, the layers of information are combined using the fuzzy gamma operator and the final map of the areas prone to subsidence is prepared.

Results and discussion

The area of Hashtgerd Plain lacks the variety of geomorphological landforms and is mainly located on the plain and old conifers. The absence of geomorphological barriers has made the residential and agricultural development in this area not to face much restrictions. Therefore, in the period of 30 years, there have been major changes in the land use of the region. The land use map of the studied area during the years 1990 to 2020 shows the increase of residential and agricultural uses. According to the results of calculating the water level drop in the studied wells, in this research, using the spline interpolation method, an annual groundwater drop map has been prepared in the study area, based on this, the middle and southern areas of the range Studies have the highest average annual groundwater level drop.

The correlation between the annual average drop of the underground water level and the amount of subsidence has been evaluated, and the results show that the correlation coefficient between them is about 7%. According to the results, it can be concluded that the Hashtgerd range has experienced subsidence between 18 and 320 mm in our five-year period.

Conclusion

Land subsidence will ultimately be the "death of the aquifer" and the destruction of agriculture and horticulture in the Hashtgerd Plain. With the continuation of this process, the fertile lands of Hashtgerd region will face a dark prospect and irreparable social and economic effects will affect the region. The results of radar interferometry indicate that the amount of subsidence in the study area during a 5-year period is between 18 and 32 cm. The final subsidence map shows that the highest amount of subsidence is in the southern and western areas and the lowest amount is related to the northern areas of the study area. Based on the assessment of areas prone to subsidence risk, it can be seen that the results of radar interferometry are highly reliable to a significant extent.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Subsidence
  • Radar images
  • Radar interferometry
  • Hashtgerd