تحلیل میزان مهاجرت عرضی مجرای رودخانه ارس با استفاده از روش ترانسکت در طی سال‌های 2016-1987 (از سد خدا آفرین تا سد میل مغان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

در این پژوهش، میزان مهاجرت مجرای رودخانه ارس در طی 29 سال گذشته (در بازه زمانی 1987 م، 1366ه.ش تا 2016م، 1395ه.ش) با استفاده از روش ترانسکت موردبررسی قرار گرفت. در ابتدا مجرای رودخانه برای دو دوره زمانی با استفاده از پردازش تصاویر ماهواره‌ای سنجنده های TM، OLI، لندست 5 و 8 به دست آمد. سپس با توجه به مورفولوژی و میزان مهاجرت مجرا، رودخانه ارس به 13 ترانسکت تقسیم‌شده و میزان مهاجرت مجرا بر اساس مهاجرت‌های صورت گرفته محاسبه شد. همچنین، با توجه به تغییرات ایجادشده در مساحت ترانسکت ها، وسعت اراضی ازدست‌رفته و یا اضافه‌شده در هر دو کرانه رودخانه محاسبه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین میزان مهاجرت مجرای رودخانه ارس در طول 29 سال گذشته (مابین دو سد) در حدود 73/4 متر در سال بوده است. در طی این دوره در حدود 48/171 هکتار به اراضی ایران افزوده‌شده و در مقابل حدود 26/376 هکتار از اراضی ایران درنتیجه تغییرات مجرا از دسترس خارج‌شده است. بر این اساس پیشنهاد می‌شود ارزیابی دقیق تغییرات رودخانه‌های مرزی موردتوجه بیشتری قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of lateral migration rate of Aras River using Transect method from 1987-2016 years (from khoda Afarin dam to Mil Moghan dam)

نویسندگان [English]

  • fariba esfandiyari 1
  • masoud rahimi 2
  • mohsen rahimi 1
1 mohaghegh ardabili university
2 tabriz university
چکیده [English]

1. Introduction
Rivers through production, movement and storage of sediments are one of the most important factors that modifying the earth’s surface. Lateral migration of rivers has been always associated with the bank erosion of the streambed or channel wall due to turbulent flow condition of water. River Migration channel occurred in a corridor or region, so it in some cases creates the problems for whom living in this region. Many people lose their houses, farmland, infrastructure and even their livelihoods because of migration and erosion of the river channel. In this study, Aras River channel migration during the past 29 years (1987 to 2016) was evaluated using transects methods. This river have a great importance in relation to water supply in the northwestern parts of the country. Moreover, in the large distances, forms Iran boundary line with the countries of Armenia and Azerbaijan. Therefore, research on the lateral changes of river becomes necessary.
 
2. Methodology
Topographic maps with scale of 1: 50,000, digital elevation model (DEM) with 27 m resolution, and satellite imagery (Landsat 5 TM satellite sensor& Landsat 8 OLI satellite sensor) are most important materials in this research. Studied channel reach of Aras River for two time periods, 1987 and 2016 were extracted by processing satellite images. Then, channel based on morphology and changes trend was divided into 13 transects, and quantitative indicators were calculated for each transect. Moreover, the extent of the lost or added land area on both banks of the river were calculated with respect to changes in transects area.
3. Results and Discussion
Study of lateral migration of Aras River showing high change in late 29 years. The average of channel migration rate in the study reach of Aras River is about 4.73 meters per year, which is a significant value. According to the studies, meanders of the river channel are active, and the formation of new meanders, meanders migration as a result of erosion and create cutoff frequently occurs with a relatively high rate. By comparing the mean values of the central angle and rate of channel migration can be said, in transects that planform is the developed meandering river, the rate of channel migration is higher. But in a few transects where the river tends to be a straight pattern. In the study area, according to the past changes trend, channel changes have occurred due to three major reasons: (1) channel migration in the floodplain due to the erosion of concave banks of meander loops, (2) occur cutoffs through development and nearing the base of meanders, which its effects can be seen as an abandoned channel, and (3) occur avulsion in the parts of the river channel. In fact, large quantities and unusual migration rate in some transects related to the avulsion. Most likely, the avulsion caused by the river flooding, especially in the spring and disturbances due to the confluences.
 
4. Conclusion
In some cases, combined these factors associated with interventions variables such as effects of confluences has caused the channel movement is very significant, and the unusual. The results indicated that the average of channel-migration rates for the Aras River (Between two dams) was about 4.73 meters per year during the past 29 years. During the period from 1987 to 2016 as a result of due to channel-migration of river approximately 171.48 hectares of land were added to the Iran and in contrast at about 376.26 hectares has been inaccessible. It is suggested that more attention be accurately assess changes in trans-border rivers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • river morphology
  • Lateral migration
  • Transect Method
  • Aras River
  • رضایی مقدم، محمدحسین، ثروتی، محمدرضا و اصغر اصغری سراسکانرود، 1391، بررسی تغییرات الگوی هندسی رودخانه قزل­اوزن با استفاده از تحلیل هندسه فراکتال، نشریه علمی- پژوهشی جغرافیا و برنامه­ریزی (دانشگاه تبریز)، سال 16، شماره 40، صص 139-119.
  • رضائی­مقدم، محمدحسین و نوشین پیروزی­نژاد، 1393، بررسی تغییرات مجرا و فرسایش کناره­ای در رودخانه گاماسیاب از سال 1334 تا 1389. نشریه علمی-پژوهشی جغرافیا و برنامه­ریزی، سال 18، شماره 47، صص 132-109.
  • شریفی کیا، محمد و نعمت مال امیری،1392، آشکارسازی تغییرات الگوی مکانی رودخانه هیرمند و تحلیل مورفولوژیکی آن، پژوهش­های ژئومورفولوژی کمّی، شماره 4، صص 160-149.
  • معتمد، احمد، 1379، ژئومورفولوژی، جلد سوم (فرآیندهای دامنه‌ای، آبراهه‌ای، ساحلی و بادی)، انتشارات سمت، صفحه 209
  • یاسی، مهدی، 1388، راهنمای طراحی، ساخت و نگهداری آبشکن های رودخانه‌ای، نشریه 516 دفتر نظام فنی اجرایی، وزارت نیرو.
  • یاسی، مهدی، 1394، جزوه درسی مهندسی رودخانه پیشرفته (قسمت اول)، کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری، گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه ارومیه. صص 40.
  • یمانی، مجتبی، رحیمی، مسعود و عبدالکریم ویسی، 1394، مورفومتری و مقایسه تغییرات عرضی رودخانه ارس طی سه دهه اخیر (مطالعه موردی: پایین‌دست سد میل مغان)، پژوهش‌های ژئومورفولوژی کمی، شماره 4، صص 89-74.
    • Abate, M., Nyssen, J., Steenhuis, T. S., Moges, M. M., Tilahun, S. A., Enku, T., and Adgo, E., 2015, Morphological changes of Gumara River channel over 50 years, upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 525, pp.152-164.
      • Briaud, J.L., Chen, H., Change, K., Chung, Y, Park, N., Wang, W.P., 2007, Establish guidance for soil properties-based prediction of meander migration rate. Texas Transportation Institute.
      • Casado, A., Peiry, J., Cambo, A.M., 2016, Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated bu a large dam, Sauce Grand River, Argentina. Geomorphology, Vol. 268, pp.21-34.
      • Charlton, R, 2008, Fundamental of Fluvial Geomorphology. pp.1-234.
      • Dufour, S., Massimo, R., Hervé,  P., Michalon, A., 2015, How  do  river  dynamics  and  human  influences  affect  the  landscape pattern  of  fluvial  corridors?  Lessons  from  the  Magra  River, Central–Northern  Italy. Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 134, pp. 107–118.
      • Giardino, John R and Lee, Adam A., 2011, Rates of channel migration on the Brazos river. Submitted to the Texas Water Development Board. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A and M University.
      • Heo, J., Duc, T.A., Cho, H.S., Choi, S.U., 2009, Characterization and prediction of meandering channel migration in the GIS environment: A case study of the Sabine River in the USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 152, Issue 1-4, pp. 155-165.
      • Hossain, M. A., Gan, T. Y., and Baki, A. B. M., 2013, Assessing morphological changes of the Ganges River using satellite images. Quaternary international, Vol. 304, pp. 142-155.
      • Lauer, J. Wesley., 2006, NCED Stream Restoration Toolbox, Channel plan form Statistics. National center for earth-surface dynamics.
      • Lewin, J., Macklin, M.G., Newson, M.D., 1988, Regime theory and environmental change irreconcilable concepts? In: White, W.R. Ed., International Conference on River Regime, Wiley: pp. 431-45, New York.
      • Magdaleno, F., and Y. J. A., Fernandez., 2011, Meander dynamics in a changing river corridor. Geomorphology, Vol. 130, pp. 197-207.
      • Mango, L. M., Melesse, A. M., McClain e., M. E. Gann., Setegn, D., S. G.,2011, Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: results of a modeling study to support better resource management, Journal of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, pp: 2245–2258.
      • Pires-Luiz, C. H and M., Philippe, 2010, Inferring fluctuations of the aquifer by monitoring the area of small lakes in a Brazilian savanna region using a temporal sequence of 50 Landsat images. ISPRS TC VII Symposium – 100 Years ISPRS, Vienna, Austria, July 5–7, 2010, IAPRS, Vol. XXXVIII, Part 7B. pp. 463-468.
      • Provansal, M., Dufour, S., François, S., Anthony, E.J., Raccasi, G., and Robresco, S., 2014, The geomorphic evolution and sediment balance of the lower Rhône River (southern France) over the last 130 years: Hydropower dams versus other control factors. Journal of Geomorphology, Vol. 219, pp. 27– 41.
      • Rapp, R. G. Cygnia and Abbe, T.B., 2003, A framework for delineating channel migration zones. Ecology final draft publication
      • Rhoads, B. L., Quinn, W. L., and W. Andresen., 2016, Historical changes in channel network extent and channel planform in an intensively managed landscape: Natural versus human-induced effects, Journal of Geomorphology, Vol.252, pp. 17–31. 
      •  Rigon, E., Moretto, J., Rainato, R., Aristide, L. M,  and A., Zorzi., 2013, Evaluation of the Morphological Quality Index in the Cordevole River (Bl, Italy), Journal of Agricultural Engineering, volume XLIV:e15. Pp.103–113.
      • Rozo, M. G., Nogueira, A. C., and Castro, C. S., 2014, Remote sensing-based analysis of the planform changes in the Upper Amazon River over the period 1986–2006. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 51, pp.28-44.
      • Tejeda, E. M., Zabalza, J., Rahman Kazi, S.A.G, Moreno, I.J., Vicente, S., Lehmann, A., Tague, C.L., Beniston M., 2014, Hydrological impacts of climate and land-use changes in a mountain watershed: uncertainty estimation based on model comparison, Journal of ECOHYDROLOGY,Vol.10,  pp. 1 – 21.
      • Watson.,C.C., Biedenharn, D.S., Scott, Stephen. H., 1999, Channel rehabilitation: processes, design, and implementation. U.S. Army Engineer, Engineer Research and Development Center.
      • Xu, H., 2007, Extraction of urban built-up land features from Landsat imagery using a thematic-oriented index combination technique. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 73, No. 12, PP. 1381-1391.
      • Zaharia, G., I, Gabriel, M., Lili., 2015, Using Pressure and Alteration Indicators to Assess River Morphological Quality: Case Study of the Prahova River (Romania). Journal of Water, Vol.7, pp. 2971-2989.
      • Zhang, T., Xingnan, Z, Dazhong, X., Yangyang, L., 2014, An Analysis of Land Use Change Dynamics and Its Impacts on Hydrological Processes in the Jialing River Basin, Journal of Water, pp. 3758 – 3782.