شاخص ژئومورفودایورسیتی: کمی کردن تنوع چشم انداز طبیعی و لندفرم‌های کوهستان میشو، شمال غرب ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکده برنامه ریزی و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکده برنامه ریزی و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز

10.22034/gmpj.2022.333913.1338

چکیده

ارزیابی ژئودایورسیتی یکی از مراحل اولیه و اصلی در توسعه اقدامات حفاظت از زمین است. این پژوهش سعی دارد معیاری را برای اندازه گیری تنوع ژئومورفولوژیکی در کوهستان میشو به کار برده و اندازه بگیرد. هدف مطالعه حاضر ارزیابی کمی تنوع زمینی توده کوهستانی است که از شدت نمایان بودن مورد اغفال است. پارامترهای مورد استفاده در بررسی عبارت است از: تنوع تراکم زهکشی، تنوع زمین شناسی، تنوع طبقه بندی لندفرم، تنوع وضعیت شیب، تنوع شدت ناهمواری. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد دامنه ژئومورفودایورسیتی منطقه مورد مطالعه از سمت قله‌ها به سمت دشت کاهش می‌یابد و مناطق دارای ارزش ژئومورفودایورسیتی کم در دشت واقع شده است. همچنین کم‌ترین تنوع(V1) متشکل از نهشته‌های کواترنری است و بیشترین تنوع (V4وV5) از تشکیلات کربناتی، توده‌های نفوذی و ترکیبات آتشفشانی تشکیل شده است . مقادیر بالای تنوع در عامل زمین‌شناسی مربوط به بستر زمین‌شناسی مقاوم در برابر فرسایش ( مانند ترکیبات آتشفشانی و توده های نفوذی) و کم‌ترین مقادیر تنوع نیز مربوط به نهشته‌های دوره کواترنر در امتداد دره‌ها و دشت ها است. نتایج از طریق مقایسه با نقشه ژئومورفولوژی و کنترل میدانی اعتبار سنجی شده است. نقشه تولید شده برای ارزیابی مرحله اول ژئومورفودایورسیتی هر منطقه ساده و مفید است. این نقشه‌ها می‌توانند در ارزیابی میراث زمین مناطق طبیعی و همچنین در مدیریت و حراست از آن که در مرحله آخر به نفع ژئوتوریسم خواهد بود، کمک کند.



واژگان کلیدی: ژئومورفودایورسیتی، GMI، کمی سازی تنوع زمینی، کوهستان میشو،

شمال غرب ایران.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geomorphodiversity index: Quantifying the diversity of landforms and physical landscape of the Mishu Mountains, Northwest of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • davoud Mokhtari 1
  • Mohammad Hosein rezayi moghadam 1
  • Mahdie Esfandiari 2
1 full professor, Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Faculty of Planning and Environmental Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction

Geodiversity is recognized as an important aspect of nature conservation in itself and is a material consideration in planning decisions in developed countries. In recent decades, many researchers have turned their attention to the definition of geodiversity and its relationship to biodiversity, natural environment protection, ecosystem services, and geotourism. In the emerging science of geodiversity, geomorphodiversity evaluates the shape of the surface features of a place or region. Different geomorphological landforms may occur in a geographical environment that creates a variety of landforms called geomorphodiversity. The purpose of this study is to provide an indicator of geomorphodiversity as an attempt to replace landforms with DEM-derived morphometric parameters and finally to prepare geomorphodiversity maps of the study area; Geomorphodiversity Index (GmI). DEM As the only input data, this approach makes it possible to achieve topographic variables with different horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy and to test more than one topographic data for an area. Thus, the GmI method uses geomorphological data only for result validation and not as input parameters to avoid the limitations mentioned in geomorphological thematic mapping. The Mishu Mountains contain a variety of geomorphological phenomena.

this mountain are less popular today among different regions due to habitat destruction and species extinction. In the past, it was one of the most valuable regions in the country in the regional network and was considered an irreplaceable region. Due to the recent droughts and the lack of codified management plans and also due to the lack of attention in control and supervision of miners and also one of the main conflicts in the Mishu Mountains, we can point to the imbalance between livestock and rangeland. This area has witnessed many destructions over the past years. Mainly the geodiversity of the Misho Mountain region has been involved in its development, providing both opportunities and constraints that need to be managed and understood. With the advent of new approaches in geodiversity, geographical spaces such as Mount Misho can be used effectively.

Methodology

The study area is located in northwestern Iran. Its highest peak is Ali Alamdar with a height of 3155 meters. In terms of morphological and geological characteristics, it is divided into two parts, Eastern Misho and Western Mishu. In this study, the GMI Quantitative Geomorphodiversity Index presented by Melelli et al. (2017) is used to evaluate. Analysis of indicators and using advanced software such as GIS software, Land Face software and SAGA increases the validity of research findings and results. This analysis includes five factors taken from Melelli et al. The sum of these five parameters shows the geomorphodiversity of the region (Equation 1).

1 : GmI = Geov + Ddv + Rgv + Spv + Lcv

GmI Index of geomorphodiversity:

1. Geov is a classified raster map of geological diversity.

2. DdV is a categorized raster map factor for drainage density variability.

3. Rgv Classified raster map is a factor of roughness variation.

4. Spv is a categorized raster map.

5. LcV Classified Raster Map is a factor in Landform classification diversity.

It is necessary to mention that except for the geological map factor, in other factors, the maps went through two stages of processing. The first step is to extract the raw data. The second stage is normalization using natural ruptures. This algorithm reduces the variance within the groups and maximizes the variance between them. Normalization uses the ArcGIS 10.7 reclassification tool to create five classes for each factor. V1 is the lowest while V5 is the highest diversity class (V). This formula is classified into five categories (very low) to (very high). The focus of the research method of this model is the spatial analysis of indicators obtained from Dem 12.5 meters. To evaluate the variability of each parameter, a focal function (neighborhood statistics function) is applied as a result of the variability.

Results and Discussion

The results of this study showed that the range of geomorphodiversity of the study area decreases from the peaks to the plain and areas with low geomorphodiversity value are located in the plain. The lowest diversity (V1) consists of Quaternary deposits and the highest diversity (V4 and V5) is composed of carbonate formations, intrusive masses, and volcanic formations because they are the rarest type of rocks all over the earth's surface, located mainly in the eastern Mishu. The high values of diversity in the geological factor are related to the erosion-resistant geological substrate (such as volcanic compositions and intrusive masses) and the lowest values of diversity are related to the Quaternary deposits along valleys and plains. The geological factor, waterway network, and landform classification show the highest percentage of area in the upper classes of diversity compared to other parameters of the geomorphodiversity equation (Equation 1). In geological factor due to the large area of carbonate and alluvial assemblies. In the other two factors,

Conclusion

The results of the present study showed that the range of geomorphodiversity of the study area decreases from the peaks to the plain and areas with low geomorphodiversity value are located in the plain. Also, the lowest diversity (V1) consists of Quaternary deposits and the highest diversity (V4 and V5) consists of carbonate formations, intrusive masses and volcanic compounds because they are the rarest type of rocks all over the earth, which are mainly in The eastern parts of Misho are located. The high values of diversity in the geological factor are related to the erosion-resistant geological substrate and the lowest values of diversity are related to the Quaternary deposits along the valleys and plains.The geological factor, waterway network and landform classification show the highest percentage of area in the upper classes of diversity compared to other parameters of the geomorphodiversity equation (Equation 1).



Keywords: Geomorphodiversity, GMI, Quantification of terrestrial diversity, Mishu Mountain,

Northwest of Iran.



Melelli, L., Vergari, F., Liucci, L., Del Monte, M., 2017. Geomorphodiversity index: Quantifying the diversity of landforms and physical landscape. Science of the Total Environment, 584–585, pp. 701–714.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Geomorphodiversity
  • GMI
  • Quantification of terrestrial diversity
  • Mishu Mountain
  • Northwest of Iran