بررسی ارتباط بین تغییرات شوری خاک و لندفرم‌های مناطق بیابانی در شمال استان اصفهان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ژئومورفولوژی، گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

2 گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

3 گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

4 عضو هیات علمی مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

10.22034/gmpj.2022.350895.1366

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تغییرات پدیده شوری خاک در لندفرم‌های بیابانی شمال استان اصفهان با بهره‌گیری از تصاویر ماهواره‌ای لندست5 و 8 ، سنجنده-های TM و OLI-TIRS در بازه زمانی 1987 تا 2020 است. پس از پیش پردازش‌های لازم تصاویر پوشش دهنده قلمرو مطالعاتی، شاخص‌های شوری NDSI، BI، SI-1 و SI-2 مورد ارزیابی و نقشه‌های مربوطه ترسیم شد. وضعیت شاخص‌های شوری در لندفرمهای مستخرج از TPI نشان داد که واحد برآمدگی‌ها، کوه‌ها و ارتفاعات دارای کمترین میزان و واحد دشت های هموار (پلایاها، کفه های گلی و رسی) دارای بالاترین مقادیر هستند. اختلاف بین این دو واحد لندفرمی در همه شاخص‌ها تقریباً در حدود 2/0 می‌باشد. بررسی شاخص های شوری در طبقات ارتفاعی نشان می دهد که این شاخص ها با ارتفاع کاهش می یابد، تا آستانه 1400 متری افت شاخص ها شدید و بعد از آن ملایم می شود. شاخص های شوری با افزایش شیب، کاهش نشان می دهند؛ تا شیب 15 درجه افت شاخص های شوری با شیب تند و سپس تا شیب 65 درجه با شیب ملایم‌تری کاهش می یابد. شاخص های شوری سه فاز تغییرات را نیز نشان داد که فاز سوم از 2008 تا 2020 به مدت 12 سال با روند افزایشی ادامه داشته است. نقشه های آینده برای سال 2030 نشان داد که محور جنوبی دق سرق شامل دشت‌سرهای واقع بین کاشان تا اردستان در وضعیت بحرانی قرار می گیرند که لزوم توجه مدیران و مهندسین محیط زیست و منابع طبیعی به این موضوع را مطالبه می کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of soil salinity changes related to landforms of desert areas in the northern Isfahan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jafar Ganjali 1
  • Amirhossein Halabian 2
  • Amir Karam 3
  • shila hajehforoshnia 4
1 Ph.D student in Geomorphology, Physical Geography Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran
2 Department of Geography, Payame Noor University, Tehran. iran
3 Physical Geography Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran
4 Faculty member of the Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction

Soil salinity in recent decades due to increasing population in the world and especially in developing countries, has been considered as an environmental hazard that is a very serious threat to the lives of residents of areas prone to desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. This issue has intensified the process of desertification in these areas due to the decrease of precipitation and the gradual increase of temperature. However, soil salinity, like other environmental hazards, has no immediate effects (Metternich and Zink, 2013); but because of its consequences in human life, it is highly studied in today's world and is considered as a serious risk (Yu et al., 2010). At the same time, salinity is considered as one of the 7 factors of desertification and is 80% of the cause of desertification (Karam et al., 2019). Since the expansion of soil salinity and the destruction of fields and rangelands in the north of Isfahan province is one of the environmental hazards in this geographical area, the present study aims to identify and investigate this unfortunate phenomenon in this area using It deals with satellite numerical data as one of the important factors of land degradation. It may provide a platform for planning de-desertification and soil management in the region to achieve sustainable development and improve environmental conditions.



Methodology

Soil salinity is one of the most important processes that limit plant growth and causes the spread of desertification and land degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. Distribution of soil salinity in different landforms and its changes over time and prediction of salinity patterns have a significant contribution in environmental management in arid and semi-arid and desert areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of soil salinity phenomena in desert landforms in the north of Isfahan province using Landsat satellite images, TM5 and OLI-TIRS sensors in the period 1987- 2020. For this purpose, 200 images were extracted in the 27 warm months of the year from June 1 to the end of August during this period. After the necessary preprocessing and mosaic and the composition of the band of the 4 images covering the image covering the study area, the salinity indices of NDSI, BI, SI-1 and SI-2 were evaluated and the relevant maps were drawn. The topographic position index and classification of landforms based on TPI were also examined.



Discussion and Results

The results showed that the trend of changes in salinity index increases from mountainous areas to low lands. The status of salinity indices in landforms extracted from TPI showed that the unit of mountains and heights have the lowest and the unit of flat plains (playa, mud and clay pan) have the highest values. The difference between these two landform units in all indicators is about 0.2. Investigation of salinity indices in the elevation tints shows that these indices decrease severely with elevation, up to the threshold of 1400 m, then the rate of the change decreases. Salinity indices decrease more with increasing slope; up to a slope of 15°, then the rate of change get gentler up to a slope of 65°. Salinity indices showed three temporal phases of change that the third phase has continued from 2008 - 2020 (12 years) with an increasing trend. The predicted maps (for the year 2030) illustrated that the southern region of Daq-E-Sorkh, including the pediments between Kashan and Ardestan, is in a critical situation, which requires the attention of environmental and natural resources managers and engineers to this issue.



Conclusion

The results showed that the trend of changes in salinity index increases from mountainous areas to low lands. The status of salinity indices in landforms extracted from TPI showed that the unit of mountains and heights have the lowest and the unit of flat plains (playa, mud and clay pan) have the highest values. The difference between these two landform units in all indicators is about 0.2. Investigation of salinity indices in the elevation tints shows that these indices decrease severely with elevation, up to the threshold of 1400 m, then the rate of the change decreases. Salinity indices decrease more with increasing slope; up to a slope of 15°, then the rate of change get gentler up to a slope of 65°. Salinity indices showed four temporal phases of change that the fourth phase has continued from 2014 - 2020 (6 years) with an increasing trend. The predicted maps (for the year 2030) illustrated that the southern region of Daq-E-Sorkh, including the pediments between Kashan and Ardestan, is in a critical situation, which requires the attention of environmental and natural resources managers and engineers to this issue.

Keywords: Salinity, Desertification, Landform, Salinity Indices, Topographic Components.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Salinity
  • Desertification
  • Landform
  • Salinity Indices
  • Topographic Components